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不動産法

店舗のリース契約・注意点 ②

Q:  カフェを始めるに当たり、店舗を借りることになりました。リース契約を結ぶ時には、どういうことに気を付けたら良いでしょうか?(30代男性=飲食店勤務)   A: 今回はリテール(小売り)リースに関する法律に重点を置き、NSW州法「Retail Lease Act」(以下、Retail Lease法)について説明します。他州にも同様の法律が存在します。  一般的にリース契約書は、物件オーナーに一方的に有利に書かれた書類です。かつて、小売店舗リースに関して、オーナーと店子の間でもめ事が絶えず、社会的な問題に発展したという背景があります。そこでこうした小売店舗リースに公正さをもたらすために、Retail Lease法が立法されました。       「Disclosure Statement」 まず、リース契約締結前に、オーナーは店子に対し、そのリースに関する重要事項を、全て分かりやすく店子に伝えるべく、「Disclosure Statement」という書類を提出するよう義務付けられています。もしこのDisclosure Statementに不備があったり、虚偽の情報が盛り込まれていたりすると、後に店子にリース契約を解約する権利が生じたり、また、オーナーに罰金が科されたりすることがあります。 Disclosure Statementの内容は、以下を含みます。 賃料、賃料が見直される方法 共益費の詳細及びその店子の負担割合 オーナーがリースと共に提供する器具備品の詳細 オーナーが施す内装工事及びそれに対する店子の負担率 オーナーが必要とする店構えの詳細、この他、店子が負担する支払いなど Disclosure Statementは、リース契約締結の少なくとも7日前に店子に渡すことが義務付けられています。また、店子はDisclosure Statementを受け取った後、オーナーに対して受け取りの確認及び「Lessee’s Disclosure Statement」を7日以内に返送しなくてはなりません。 Lessee’s Disclosure Statementの中には、店子として、「本リース契約上の条件を全うできる確信がある」という確認や、特に重要なのは、リース契約書に記されたこと以外で、エージェントまたはオーナーと口約束があった場合には、その詳細の記入も求められているという点です。それらの詳細の記入がない場合には、後日、そうした口約束の主張ができなくなる可能性がありますので注意が必要です。   契約に関する費用の支払い 一般的な商業リース(オフィスなど)の場合、リース契約書の締結に関わるオーナーの法務費用は全てテナントが負担する、という条件が多々見受けられます。しかし小売店舗リースの場合は、そうしたオーナーの費用を店子に負わせる事は原則的に禁じられています。同様に、店子に対し「Key Money」(ボンドや保証金と違い、返金されることがない、日本でいう「礼金」に相当)の支払いを求めることも禁じられています。 NSW州以外にお住まいの方は、それぞれの州のRetail Lease法につき、各州の専門家にご確認ください。


不動産法

Defects in Strata Building

There have been many reports of defects in new apartments in the Sydney region. To address these issues, under the Strata Schemes Management Act 2015 Part 11 it provides new obligations that property developers must follow. Under the new law, property developers are required to pay NSW Fair Trading a deposit, equal to 2% of the value of the contract exchanged with the Construction Company. Until the deposit is paid, the developer will not be able to obtain the Occupation Certificate for the apartment which is required during settlement with the purchaser. Additionally, between 15-18 months after completing the construction of the building, there is a mandatory obligation to inspect the building by an independent building inspector who has not affiliation with the developer. Should a defect be found, the Construction Company that build the building must repair any damages and the cost of such repair is covered by the bond. The new scheme will only apply in the following circumstances: Apartments with 4 floors or more; Residential or mixed residential/commercial buildings; and Construction contracts signed on or after 1 January 2018. (Apartments with less than 4 floors are covered by the Home Building Composition Fund.) The obligations imposed on property developers under this new scheme aims at detecting and  repairing any defects early on, and to avoid situations whereby buyers and owners are forced to repair long-term defects which may be costly.   


不動産法

Retail lease ①

Q: As I opened a café, I leased out a store. What should I keep in mind when entering into a lease contract? (Male in their 30s working at a restaurant)   A: The most important thing when running a café is leasing a store. You must be aware of basic clauses such as: lease period, rent, rent review conditions, bank guarantee, burden of utilities expenses, business days and business hours and the obligation to repaid equipment and fixtures in stores. However, outside of those mentioned above there are more and there are lease agreements which may be favourable to the Landlord. The best time to negotiate various contractual terms with the Landlord is before the draft lease is issued. Following from this, it is best to consult with a lawyer or a specialist and receive advice and then negotiate with the Landlord on the basic conditions. Checklist before finalising the Lease Confirm that there are no registration problems with the owner and property Check if the permission to run a café has been issued by a government body Have items such as toilets, air conditioners, refrigerators, stoves, grease traps etc., inspected for any problems. When receiving equipment from the previous owner, confirm the ownership (whether it was leased or mortgaged) When renovating a store, ensure prior agreement is made with the Landlord If purchasing an existing business, it is best to complete the above research, together with your sales in order to determine whether the purchase price is reasonable. Bank Guarantee When renting a commercial property, the landlord will require a few months’ worth of bank guarantees, however there are a few exceptions. A bank guarantee is an agreement to pay the Landlord a mutually agreed rent on behalf of the Tenant, should the Tenant become insolvent. Banks usually require a fixed amount of deposit from the Tenant, as collateral when issuing a guarantee. Therefore, during the lease period, the deposit is frozen.  Lease Period After the lease expires, it is up to the Landlord to decide whether to renew the lease and decide what the rent price will be. In the case of a thriving business, there is a chance that the Landlord may set a higher rent when signing a new Lease agreement. Additionally, a third party may offer a larger rent price to the Landlord in order to take over the business. In this case, the rent provided by the third party may become the new rent amount. This does not mean that the lease period will be long. Some tenants are relieved that "the lease period is over, and the store is to be closed". In this regard, there are many contracts in which the borrower is granted an option to renew the lease term. Lease contracts vary widely, so various things need to be considered. As each business need differs, we recommend that you consult a lawyer before signing a Lease contract.


不動産法

Retail Lease Update 2017

1. Minimum Term (Section 16) Minimum 5-year term is removed from the Act.   2. Registration of Retail Lease (Section 16) Leases for a term of more than 3 years must be lodged for registration within 3 months after the signed Lease is returned to the Landlord   3. Bank Guarantee (Section 16BA) Bank Guarantee must returned to the Tenant within 2 months after Tenant completes obligations under the Lease.   4. Mortgage Consent Fees (Section 3) The Act will be amended to specifically prohibit a Landlord from charging a Tenant expenses incurred in connection with obtaining the consent of a mortgage.   5. Demolition (Section 35) Clarifies that the protection to Tenants afforded by the Act applies to proposed demolition of the building or any part of the building. The Lease cannot be terminated by the Landlord unless the proposed demolition cannot be carried out practicably without vacant possession of the shop (Section 35(1)(a1)). Previously this position was reflected in the definition of demolition.   6. Lessor’s Disclosure Statement (Section 11) Right to compensation for lessee: If a Landlord fails to serve a complete and accurate Lessor’s Disclose Statement 7 days before the Lease is entered into, the Tenant now has the right to terminate the Lease within the first 6 months and claim compensation including the cost of its fit-out (Section 11(2A)). Disclosure of outgoings: The Tenant is now not liable to pay any outgoings unless the liability was disclosed in the Lessor’s Disclosure Statement (Section 12A).   7. Consent to Assignment (Section 41) Clarifies that the Landlord must provide an updated Lessor’s Disclosure Statement within 14 days of request (Section 41(c)). If the Landlord fails to do so, whereas previously this requirement could be ignored, now the Tenant must provide a Lessor’s Disclosure Statement completed by the Tenant to the best of the Tenant’s knowledge (but with information as to current outgoings) (Section 41(e)). A Landlord will not be able to withhold consent to assignment if a Lease was awarded by public tender and the proposed assignee fails to meet any criteria of the tender (Section 39).   8. Online Transactions Revenue from online transactions are not to be included in turnover for the purposes of determination of rent, except for transactions where goods or services are delivered or provided from or at the retail shop or where the transaction takes place while the customer is in the retail shop (section 20). The Bill will prevent the Tenant from having to provide the Landlord with information about online transactions, except for transactions where goods or services are delivered or provided from the retail premises or where the transaction takes place while the customer is in the shop (section 47). Note “online transaction” is not defined in the Bill.   9. NCAT Jurisdiction (Section 73) NCAT now has jurisdiction in relation to claims of up to $750,000.00.   10. Excluded Uses (Schedule 1A) The Bill clarifies that Retail Leases Act does not cover the following: ATMs Car parking (not being car parking provided as part of the business of a car park) Children’s ride machine Communication towers Digital display screens Display of signage (not including the use of premises from which signage is sold) Internet booth (not being an internet cafe or similar use) Private post boxes Public tables and seating Public telephone Renewable energy generation Renewable energy storage batteries Self-storage units Storage of goods for use or sale in a retail shop (not including storage on premises from which goods are sold) Storage lockers Vending machine   11. Exclusion of Market Stalls (Section 6B) Clarification that the Act does not apply to market stalls unless the market is a permanent retail market.   12. Copy of Lease Term The Tenant must be provided with an executed copy of the Lease within 3 months after the Lease is returned to the Landlord or their lawyer/agent following execution.   13. Agreement for Lease (Section 3B) The Act clarifies that the Act applies to an agreement to lease in the same way as to a Lease.   14. Act Applies to Both Proposed Tenants and Landlords (Section 3(2)) Where the Act refers to the rights and obligations of a Landlord or Tenant, it also applies to a provision regarding a proposed retail shop lease, including the proposed Tenants and proposed Landlords.   15. Retail Bond An “online retail bond service” may now be available.   16. Police Checks If the Landlord wishes to require police or security checks and clearances for persons employed or other persons working in the shop, they must include a provision for it in the Lease.


不動産法

レノルズ・礼子不動産法情報:NSW Government changes to Stamp Duty

On 1 June 2017, the NSW Government announced various changes to Stamp Duty to improve housing affordability.   The effect of the changes is that for any contracts dated on or after 1 July 2017: No Stamp Duty is payable on all homes up to $650,000; Concessions on Stamp Duty apply to all homes up to $800,000; $10,000 grant is available for builders of new homes up to $750,000 and purchasers of new homes up to $600,000. Insurance Duty on Lender’s Mortgage Insurance is no longer payable; Foreign investors are to pay higher duties and land taxes; Investors are no longer allowed to defer paying stamp duty on off-the-plan purchases (Purchasers who are buying a home as a primary place of residence off-the-plan, will be still entitled to 12-month delay in the payment of stamp duty).


不動産法

不動産購入 ― 瑕疵物件、購入後キャンセル出来るか

Q1:最近、不動産業者を通じてアパートの一室を購入しました。買った後になって、この部屋で1年前に強盗殺人があったという事がわかりました。気味が悪くて、とてもじゃないけど住めません。この不動産購入をキャンセルする事はできますか?    A1:日本で言うところの瑕疵物件ですね。オーストラリアにおいても、こうした「訳アリ」の物件の売買に関する法律が幾つかあります。まず、基本的には、物件の売買に関して買い手は、自己の責任において、物件購入前にこうした瑕疵の有無を調査する事が求められます(これを「Caveat Emptor」と言います)。   しかし今回のように、不動産を不動産業者を通じて購入する場合については、不動産の買い手を保護するための法律が別に存在します。例えばNSW州のProperty, Stock and Business Agents Act 2002の52条は、不動産業者がその物件に「瑕疵」があると知っていたにも関わらず、それについて黙ったまま物件の売買契約を結ぶ事を禁じています。また、消費者保護法(Australian Consumer Law)にも、似たような条項があります(第18条)。   「瑕疵」とはどの様なものかというと、「一般的な不動産購入者にとって、その不動産の購入をするか否かの重要な判断基準になり得るもの」とされています。こういった瑕疵には“精神的な汚点(Psychological Stigma)も含まれる”とされており、NSW Fair Tradingによれば、そのアパートの部屋で重大な犯罪が行われた場合などが“精神的な汚点に相当する”とされています。   今回の相談のように、購入後その不動産が「訳アリ」であると発覚した場合、この不動産購入を白紙に戻し、購入金額の全額返還を求めるというのは原則的にできないでしょう。しかし、消費者保護法に基づき賠償を求めて訴えを起こす事は可能です( 第236条)。賠償額は、この瑕疵が知られていたと仮定した上で予想されるこの物件の市場価格と、購入者が実際に支払った購入価格との差額になります。例えば、1年前の強盗殺人事件による“精神的汚点”の影響を考慮した上で「当該物件の市場価格は600,000ドルである」という査定結果が出たとします。しかし不動産業者がこの瑕疵について黙っていたために相談者は750,000ドルでその物件を購入した場合には、その差額150,000ドルの賠償を求めて訴える事になるでしょう。相談者がこの物件を査定額通りの600,000ドルで購入していた場合には、無論、賠償を求める事は出来ません。また、こうした賠償・契約無効の問題とは別に、この不動産会社が前の居住者の強盗殺人の事実を知っていた上で、これを購入者に知らせなかった場合は、不動産業者は罰せられる事があります(上記不動産業者に関する法律52条1項)。