Estate administration is a process by which permission is obtained from court stating that a will is valid and that the executor can begin to administer the estate in line with the instructions of the will. The estate administration process may feel overwhelming. However, our experienced team at H & H Lawyers will help guide you and provide you with information to ensure that you understand the process.

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遗嘱与遗产规划

Conditions of inheritance

Q: Recently, my mother passed away. Her will stated that, in addition to part of the mother's deposit, the house she owned would be handed over to me, but the condition of the inheritance was that I would "be baptised and become a Christian." During her life, my mother was a devout Christian, but I am not interested in any religion, and therefore become embarrassed. Are these bequest conditions legally binding? A: In short, it is likely that such conditions of inheritance will be legally acceptable. In particular, if the will specify how the inheritance will be treated in case that you do not satisfy the conditions, it will be more likely that such conditions are legally binding. Therefore, you need to examine your mother's will in detail. In principle, "freedom of will" is recognised in Australia so that a testator can freely decide who and how its estate will be inherited. Generally, if the conditions of an inheritance are 1) clear, 2) achievable, and 3) not contrary to public policy, the condition of the inheritance is considered valid. There is a case held in 2014 before the NSW Supreme Court in 2014, Carolyn Margaret Hicken v Robyn Patricia Carroll & Ors (No2), where the court discussed the validity of a condition that a heir needs to be baptized by the Catholic Church within three months of the death of his father.  The heir of course claimed that the above conditions were invalid. In particular, he argued that the condition was "inconsistent with public policy" because "it is religious discrimination, which creates discord within the family, and also infringes universal human rights and freedom concepts." In response, the court ruled that "the condition does not force the heir change its religion, and they are not contrary to public policy." In other words, the heir had the choice of converting and receiving an inheritance or keeping their own religion. In addition, it was held that the condition was clear and achievable. One of the major factors that led to such a decision was that the will specified how to inherit if the heir fails to meet the condition. In the current matter, it will be determined that the mother's inheritance conditions do not oblige her child to be converted. However, even if she or he is unable to fulfil the conditions, and thereby the estate is to be inherited to others, it does not mean that the child cannot inherit anything. According to the Family Provision regime stipulated in the Succession Act 2006 (NSW), regardless of the content of the will, children of the deceased can claim inheritance rights for a part of heritage. Further details about the inheritance claim on Family Provision will be explained in the later article.  


遗嘱与遗产规划

Spouse passing away whilst separated – Inheritance and family provision

Q: I separated from my husband of 25 years. Between my husband and myself, we have a son, now an adult, who is currently working. My husband and I thought it would be a temporary separation and did not divide our assets. The apartment I currently live in and an apartment that is a investment property in Tokyo is under my husband’s name. My husband passed away last week. He did not leave a will. When my ex-husband passed away, he was living with his girlfriend who has a child. In this case, what happens to the distribution of marital assets and the right to inheritance?   A: If the deceased and his new girl are legally recognised as De factor Partners, the girlfriend has the right to inherit to deceased’s estate. According to the laws of NSW, if they have been living like a couple for more than two years, the relationship will be legally recognised as a De facto relationship. A person who claims the question of ‘have they lived together like a couple’ that has the duty to prove it. For example, each person has a dwelling, and if they only spend 2,3 days together, they cannot be considered to be a marriage relationship. In this case, assuming the girlfriend was in a marital relationship with the deceased, even if the cohabitation period was short, she has a right to inherit half of the deceased’s estate as mentioned under the Succession Act. The remaining inheritance will go to you. And subsequently in this case, your son does not have any inheritance rights. You may feel that it is unfair that the girlfriend has a right to half the deceased’s estate when she has only lived with the deceased for a period of up to 3 years compared to your 25 years of marriage. If you disapprove of this result, you claim a right under the Family Provision.  Family Provision refers to the right of succession of the deceased’s dependent family, not only the spouse but individuals that had a marriage-like relationship and those who have no kinship with the deceased (Dependent). This right cannot be revoked by a will. Therefore, your son can also claim this right. Additionally, if the step-child is dependent on the deceased, this right can be asserted. If the parties do not agree on the asset distribution, the court will ultimately decide to whom and to what extent the Family Provision will be granted by taking into account all relevant circumstances.  Subsequently, you do not have the right to distribute marital assets as the procedure of distribution was not completed before the deceased’s passing. Japanese laws apply to the inheritance of apartments that are in the name of the deceased in Japan. From what I understand, as Japan is family-oriented, no inheritance rights are available to those who are not family members and those who are not recognised. Therefore, under Japanese law, with regards to property in Japan, you and your son have 50% inheritance rights.


遗嘱与遗产规划

Remarriage of father and inheritance

Q: I have a father that will be turning 60 years old this year. My mother passed away 10 years ago. My father recently became close with a woman living in our neighbourhood and yesterday he asked me “I am thinking of remarrying to this woman, what do you think?”. With regards to my father remarrying, how would this effect inheritance? A: As inheritance laws vary in each state, this column will focus on NSW inheritance laws.Generally, when you marry or remarry, the will that your father previously had is invalid. In other words, once your father remarries, and a new will is not drafted and he passes away, inheritance of any estate will be determined under inheritance laws. In this case, the person he remarries to is entitled to more than half of the estate. However, even if the father refuses to marry this woman, if the two had been in an ‘internal relationship’ for a period of more than two years or the relationship was registered with the Relationship Register, even though they are no married, she has a right to inherit as a spouse. If the father for example states in the will “I leave 100% of my estate to my daughter”, if the internal relationship is accepted as stated above, the woman reserves a right to claim some of the inheritance under the Family Provision (similar to Japanese inheritance law). In other words, depending on the will, the deceased may not be able to freely distribute the inheritance. Furthermore, if the father marries the woman or a close relationship is established, you cannot avoid the consequences of the inheritance.   If a child is born between your father and the woman, your inheritance success rate will be even lower. For your information, if the woman has a child that has no blood relation with the father, lives with your father and is dependent on the family then the child also considered to be applicable under the Family Provision to claim inheritance. Additionally, when your father passes away, anyone that has a “Close Personal Relationship” with him, has a claim under the Family Provision. However, it is ultimately up to the court to decide whether or not the claim is to be granted and to what extent.  Another important note is that after your father has married the woman, and for example ends up with a condition such as dementia, loses his ability to judge or ends up in an accident (unless a Power of Attorney has been prepared), any medical decisions made by the remarried partner will take precedence over the children. In order to avoid any disputes, why not advise your father to create a power of attorney?